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Sikhote-Alin meteorite

 

February 12, 1947 in the Primorye Territory in the western spurs of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite fell. On the way to the rendezvous with the Earth, he poured out on the hundreds of thousands of fallen debris and rain. In fact, a meteorite - a rarity, an iron meteorite - a rarity twice, and iron rain - a triple.

Sikhote-Alin meteorite is among the ten largest meteorites of the world, and a number of features makes this meteorite unique - for example, for a total uniformity of chemical composition it is not a single crystal, and is composed of many randomly oriented crystals, "poorly connected to each other" (Fesenkov, 1978), that probably was the reason for the decay into many pieces.

This is a classic example of a meteorite fall. Proved to be exceptionally favorable time and place of fall, perfect weather and even watershed, kept a picture of the devastation to the maximum extent. Place a meteorite was discovered the next day, and after two weeks were the first investigators to the crash site.

A large amount of material made it possible for virtually any testing without risk to spend too much. Therefore, the meteorite was investigated thoroughly. On it is written, at least, three monographs, and hundreds of scientific articles. Anyone interested can refer to the literature, but for the uninitiated cite a short help of the established facts.

FACTS AND FIGURES

  1. The coordinates of the crash site - 46 ° 10 'N, 134 ° 39 "E
  2. The fall - February 12, 1947 at 10:00. 38 minutes. local standard time (0 hr. 38 min. the world).
  3. Trajectory - the azimuth of 20 °, the angle of inclination to the horizon - 38 °, on a finite interval of 60 °. 
    The length of the visible trajectory of car - 140 km. 
    Flight time car - 4-5 seconds. 
    The radius of the sound effects - 120 km. 
    The shaking of the soil from the collision with the Earth - 20-30 km (Vladivostok - 420 miles - seismic is not registered.)
  4. Related phenomena: a powerful trail of smoke, the sounds - strong at the moment of collision with the Earth and weaknesses during the flight, electrophonic marked as rare, and after the explosion shot up a black cloud top altitude of 10 km. The next morning the snow over a large area looked gray.
  5. During the flight in the atmosphere of the meteorite is broken several times. By Divari: there was at the height of 110 km, with the first division - 58 miles, the second - 34 km, the third - and fourth 16 km - 6 km. Fell swarm (several swarms!) Fragments.
    The scheme of fragmentation of the Sikhote-Alin meteorite
  6. The area scattering meteorite fragments has an area of 12h4 km [Tsvetkov, 1987]. In the front (head) of the ellipse of the largest fragments fell in the rear - the smallest. In the crater area of 0.75 sq km field there are 24 craters with a diameter of more than 9 meters, 98 craters of diameter 0.5 - 9 meters and 78 holes with a diameter less than 0.5 m from the craters of meteorites hitting the Earth flew into many fragments, the craters and holes - remained intact. Small individual specimens scattered throughout the area directly on the surface. The largest crater has a diameter of 26 m and a depth of 6 m largest individual instance weighs 1745 kg, the largest fragment of about 50 kg.
    One of the craters on the site of the fall of the Sikhote-Alin meteorite
  7. The mass of the substance of the meteorite was collected in 1986, more than 27 tons [directory ...]. This includes tens of thousands of individual copies. The estimated mass of the meteorite entering the atmosphere at 1,000 tons [Fesenkov], precipitated material - about 70 tons of Krinov [1981], and 100 tons of Fesenkov [1978] and Tsvetkov [1987]. Thus, in the Ussuri taiga there are still many tons of the substance of the meteorite.
  8. VG Fesenkov doatmosfernaya calculated the trajectory of the meteorite and concluded that it came from the central part of the asteroid belt.
  9. Of coarse structure implies that the meteorite has turned in a liquid melt crystallization of iron (93.32%), nickel (6%) and cobalt (0.47%) in the complete absence of oxygen.The structure of this dimension could be formed at a cooling rate of less than 10 ° C in a million years. Such conditions could be provided in the central part of the parent body. Approximately 450 million years ago, the body was destroyed, and the meteorite (asteroid!) launched an independent tour of the asteroid belt. About 70 million years ago, he collapsed again. In the absence of clear-cut signs of metamorphism can be seen that during the walk on the cosmos he had not been any noticeable effects of temperature (do not fit close to the Sun) and pressures (not experienced with other celestial bodies).
  10. By the classification of the meteorite classified as one of the 13 chemical groups - II B An. In this group, all meteorites - hexahedrites octahedrites and rough. Results of these meteorites, 13, or 2.7% of all iron meteorites. It is believed that a genetic classification, ie each group had its own parent body.

Now everything is more or less the major museums of the world have samples of the Sikhote-Alin meteorite. Also recorded 27 tons of collected material, many samples broke up around the country and from time to time swim in unexpected places. Jokers give them a new meteorites. Typically, fraud is detected quickly, too characteristic appearance of this meteorite, but once it has gone far enough ...

In 1976, the Geological Museum staff association "Donbassgeologiya" VV Kulakovsky conveyed to the Committee on Meteorites of the USSR piece of the meteorite weighing 144, and said that he was found in a layer of Donetsk coal. Age of coal seams was 285-340 million years. Similar findings until there was. The meteorite was registered, was named Marinka and was described in detail by VP Semenenko. Press dubbed it the oldest meteorite Earth.

But ... apparently, there were doubts about its uniqueness. In 1983 was analyzed by isotope Mn-53 with a half-life 3.7 million years. If the meteorite fell 300 million years ago, all the isotopes of Mn-53 would have died out long ago. It turned out that they are in the same amount as that in the Sikhote-Alin. The matter was settled. So after almost 10 years of meteorite Marinka was excluded from the catalog.

The Committee on Meteorites of the USSR, organized in the fall of the Sikhote-Alin meteorite 15 expeditions (1947-1950, 1967-1977). As part of each of them had about 30 people.Delineated area of scattering fragments of the meteorite, found the distribution of these fragments on the area, described in detail craters collected material. Finally, the area is declared a natural monument.

Meteorite few corrected map of Primorye. Now two of the stream directly in the fall called the small and large meteorite, and the highest volcano in the area is named after LA Kulik. The nearest village - Meteor, too (up to 1972 it was called Beytsuhe).

And the most devoted to this meteorite was a researcher Evgeny Leonidovich Krini whose conscious life began in meteoritics at Tunguska. This meteorite was his meteorite. Although this meteorite, as well as to the Tunguska, touched virtually all researchers involved in meteoritics. Among them: Acad. Fesenkov, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics. Divari Sciences, Leningrad Geophysics ES Gorshkov and EG Guskov, Tallinn - geologists SAAaloe Kestlane and Yu, Kiev kosmohimik doctor does not know what VP of ScienceSemenenko, head of the Soviet cosmochemistry, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, AKLavrukhina, Tomsk mathematician, AP Boyarkina and many, many others. I would like to mention one other person, stretch participated in all 15 expeditions - Yegor Ivanovich Malinkin. He served as a laboratory assistant and caretaker, and a perpetual breadwinner.And now he continues to serve on the Committee on Meteorites, experiencing their own hard times. By the leading figures of the Sikhote-Alin is Candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, VI Tsvetkov, who participated in 1967 in all expeditions, and the last, and head.

In a sense, the Sikhote-Alin meteorite is the opposite of Tunguska. Here are some features that distinguish them:

  1. Flight time car - 5 seconds in the case of the Sikhote-Alin and a few minutes - for the Tunguska.
  2. Scale race car - the apparent path of the Sikhote-Alin - 140 km, the Tunguska - 700 km.
  3. The explosion in the Tunguska River in the air and hit the ground - in the Sikhote-Alin (Academician VG Fesenkov connects it with the speed of flight of the body, which is hardly consistent with the known facts.)
  4. The nature of the destruction of land are completely different. On the Tunguska huge inrush and burn the trees. In the Sikhote-Alin - craters with radial dumped at 20-30 meters and a complete lack of a burn.
  5. The absence of seismic and magnetic disturbances especially in the Sikhote-Alin.
  6. The lack of substance in the Tunguska cosmic body.
  7. A huge (global) scale atmospheric anomalies in the Tunguska and a very limited and short in the Sikhote-Alin.
  8. In general, different scale phenomena. In the Sikhote-Alin - the largest meteorite world and the local manifestation of the phenomena accompanying the fall. On the Tunguska - the lack of a meteorite and powerful related phenomena. A number of parameters, marked abnormalities in the Tunguska River, has never been studied in the Sikhote-Alin. Such as elemental anomalies in peat and soils, mutations in plants, finally, just a large meteorite impact on the flora of the area. All this can be investigated, and comparisons would be useful or even interesting.

Materials are used: 
meteor.n1.by

 

Автор: admin от 05.03.2012





  

 

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