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Wave that went around the world (Indian Ocean tsunami was 26.12.204)

Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences AA Nikonov
Wave that went around the world

Christmas and New Year holidays 2004-2005., As usual, I spent with my family in the seaside town. No, not on the Pacific Ocean (from the Russian scientists who could afford it?) ... Only in the Baltic, on the shores of the Baltic, the sea was still safe. Less than 10 days, as the Baltic has shown what it can, flooding many coastal cities in the 1.5-2.5 m 

Serene and blissful Sunday evening, December 26th, I sat down next to his wife, gazed regular "EuroNews". At this point, the camera showed a piece of the exotic shores: a flat plain, a wide passage to the sea, on the sides of the structure of the lungs, the palm trees. Blue sky, bright sun. People with dark skin in a hurry, riding on motorcycles. And then straight into the camera, from the sea, a distance of several hundred meters is a freewheeling water height of 1-1.5 m, but is not stopping, freely, filling all visible in the lens space, advancing on the viewer. The camera does not stand up and closes. All of this takes seconds. 

I involuntarily exclaimed: "Tsunami!" My opponent is a long-term continuous (and constant assistant) - wife - casts: "All you have tsunami. How do you fast decisions. " 

And on the TV screen in a different perspective - a big wave flooded the coast, and the people in a panic trying to escape from it. In the air there and carried that same word - the tsunami. 

Since then it has never left the clock on the screen, but we have not departed from the TV, changing channels and programs. 600, 700, 2.5K, 6, 11, 17, 24, 30, 44, 57, 70,> 100, 125, 140, 200, 150, 155, 170, 175, 234 thousand ... Statistics stopped at this figure . The actual number of those killed in disasters of this magnitude, and even in remote parts of Asia, it is not. 

Reports the number of victims was growing mountain. Scary picture of destruction, chaos, and the whole pile of debris field, debris, fallen trees, crumpled and squeezed into the car at home, thrown up on shore ships, thrown from the path of a passenger train, clinging horrible, covered and carried away by a wave of people, dead bodies in the water and on the ground ... 

And shooting from the air: tens of kilometers flooded, devastated, with the skeletons of houses jutting out here and the low-lying coasts. Square kilometers of rotting swamps. It was as if people here had never lived. 

It took two weeks. It's time to direct impressions and experiences to move to thinking about what he saw and find out. After all, we have seen (even remotely) extraordinary events, and worldwide! Natural disasters (including the tsunami) are known from the history and the distant and recent. But until now they were in the nature disasters or national or local scale. Even the worst thing in the XX century. destruction in the earthquake of Tangshan million in China and there is loss of 243 thousand people (according to other estimates - more than 600 thousand) did not work for the national framework. Strongest of the past tsunamis that killed tens of thousands of people, when the waves rose to a height of five-and ten-even demolished houses and everything, repeatedly occurred on the Pacific coast. In densely populated Japan, in 1896, the tsunami killed 23 thousand, 36 thousand people died after the explosion of Krakatoa and the resulting tsunami in 1883 when the tsunami wave height in Sumatra reached 27 m and in the neighboring Java - 40 m . now an unprecedented scale of the disaster. 

After the initial shock of deep time to think, what has brought and opened a new catastrophe in 2004 calculations, research and understanding has only just begun and will continue for a long time before the true effects and, hence, the lessons appear deeply conscious. Now - some notes that a person with some experience of studying natural disasters and catastrophes of endogenous origin. 

Ask the Experts who study tsunamis if they have seen firsthand the tsunami. The answer will be negative.Professionals have to work with the descriptions of witnesses, lay people - those rare, lucky to survive. Another source of information - a survey of tsunami-affected coastal areas. Instrumental recording gauges are extremely important, but they tend to come only from the point where the wave came weakened, "on gasp." And then we saw the tsunami in action. 

In my memory the first time in the media so versatile and specifically failed to see the phenomenon of tsunami waves are different, offensive, standing and descent of the water. For the most part are not home most destructive wave, and the subsequent, much weaker. But it is very important. Several events were new to me.For the first time, looking for unique pictures of water movement, I realized that the waves roll forward (even if it is not broken down when approaching the shore and does not breakers) is much faster than its decline, withdrawal from the flooded low-lying areas. First seen by logging into the mouth of the river, the water in his eyes raised her level, moving upstream. Did you see how vzmuchena, full suspension of mineral particles surging on the shore water, even at relatively small (up to 1 m) high. Needless to say, she was dragging a lot of garbage. 

For the geologist in charge paleotsunami, very impressive for the first time seen (although they had read about many times) 10-20-cm layers of mud left by the tsunami, closed the asphalt and soil sand beaches. 

Some time later we learned about "digging" the tsunami disaster. Two-meter stone lions once buried early medieval town near the modern Madras (South India) after the retreat of the waves lifted haughty heads above the coastal sediments. 

Often the water stagnate in the flooded area for many days. This means that the sludge contained in it can be deposited by the tsunami brought over the material. To select the layers paleotsunami in different places it could be an important sign. Such layers have repeatedly had to describe the Crimean and Baltic coasts.


Автор: admin от 05.03.2012



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