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Violent volcanic eruptions

About 254 thousand years ago. O. North, New Zealand. Taupo volcano. 
Intensified the volcano covered with a thick layer of igneous rocks thrown a lot of space around the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The consequences of this disaster were visible at a distance of 10,000 km from the volcano. 

1636 BC O. Thira (Santorini), Greece. The volcano of Santorini. 
Almost the entire island literally exploded, so that the black cloud of ash, debris and dust covered the sky for tens of kilometers around. It is believed that this disaster could give rise to the myth of the destruction of Atlantis. 

A New Era 

August 24, 79 Italy. The volcano Vesuvius. 
Killed at least 2,000 inhabitants of Pompeii. Buried under the ashes of Herculaneum and Stabiae, as well as several small villages and villas. The strength of the eruption was such that the ashes of his shot through, even to Egypt and Syria. 

Approximately 180 g O. North, New Zealand. Taupo volcano. 
Eruption Hatepe (named in honor of Plinian pumice deposits, sometimes simply referred to as the eruption of Taupo) is the last major eruption of Taupo, and the largest eruption in New Zealand over the past 20,000 years - 7 points on a scale VE.It was thrown about 120 km ³ of material, of which 30 km ³ of erupted within a few minutes. It is considered that the height of eruption column reached 50 km in visotu.All this makes the eruption of one of the strongest over the past 5000 years, comparable in strength to the eruption of Tambora (1815). The eruption was of such a strong influence on the northern hemisphere, that the Roman and Chinese sources documented phenomenon of "red sky". 

March 11, 1669 Sicily, Italy. Mount Etna. 
Killed at least 20,000 people, although other data, the number of victims ranged from 60,000 to 100,000. The rivers of molten lava buried the 50 cities, including Pietro Kamporotondo, Maskalev and Misterbianco. This is the most catastrophic eruption in the history of the explosions of Mount Etna, it was preceded by a three-day a powerful earthquake, which swallowed up the entire city of Nicolosi. The climax of the explosion occurred at dawn on March 11. It has led to the formation of a giant crack length of 19 kilometers and a width of about two meters. By the end of the day March 11 came the seventh crater. He fired red-hot-hot stones, sand and ashes of the surrounding countryside of Sicily in an area of approximately 233 square kilometers. The last time the volcano erupted May 10, 2008 g.Progremel powerful explosion, several rivers of lava down the eastern side of the volcano. The eruption lasted 4:00 and ended on the evening of May 10. 

October 23, 1766 A. Luzon, Philippines. Mayon Volcano. 
More than 2,000 people were killed during the second eruption on the island of Luzon. Dozens of villages were swept away, incinerated huge lava flow (30 meters wide), which for two days down the eastern slopes. After the initial explosion and the flow of lava erupting volcano Mayon continued another 4 days, releasing a large amount of watery vapor and dirt. Grayish-brown river width from 25 to 60 meters struck down the slopes of the mountains within a radius of 30 kilometers. They are utterly swept away in its path of the road, animals, village people (daragoy, Kamalig, Tobacco). In general, people swallowed the first flow of lava or mud avalanches secondary. Within two months, the mountain spewed ash, lava poured out on the surrounding area. Over the past 400 years it has erupted over 50 times. The last time in December 2009 eruption of the active phase has passed, forcing the evacuation of producing tens of thousands of people living nearby. 

January-June 1783, Iceland. The volcano Laki. 
20,000 people - a third of the population of Iceland - were killed as a result of the many powerful eruptions. Lucky - a volcanic ridge 24 kilometers in length, the chain consisting of hundreds of craters and holes. Iceland - one of the most active volcanic areas of the world. During its 1100-year-old officially documented history of Iceland experienced an average of one eruption every five years. 

April 1, 1793, Japan. Volcano Unsen. 
It is estimated that a disaster has claimed in the sea depths of 53,000 people. The volcano, which gave the island its name Unsen, ripped to pieces. Gore and all that was on the island disappeared into the sea. 

February 1, 1814 A. Luzon, Philippines. Mayon Volcano. 
Killed more than 2000 people. 

5.10 April 1815 O. Sumbawa, Indonesia. The volcano Tambora. 
The eruption in 1815 reached 7 points on a scale of VEI. which is comparable to a giant eruption of Taupo, which occurred at about 180, n. Oe. In assessing the amount of ejected material in the 150-180 cubic kilometers, the eruption of Tambora in 1815 was the largest volcanic eruption in human history. Volcanic explosion was heard on Sumatra island, located 2,000 km north-west of Tambora. Volcanic ash fall out even on remote islands such as Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Java, Moluccas. 

The death toll has reached 71,000 people (the largest number of deaths from a volcanic eruption in human history), of which 11 000-12 000 have died directly from the direct effects of the eruption, and the rest died of starvation and disease, as eruptive loss ruined agriculture in the local region. Also as a result of the eruption was destroyed culture of the inhabitants of Sumbawa Island, and tamborsky extinct language, which killed all carriers. 

The eruption has created global climate anomalies, including the phenomenon as a "volcanic winter": in 1816 became known as the "year without a summer" because of unusually low temperatures, which were established in Europe and North America. 

January 22, 1835 Nicaragua. Volcano Kosegvina. 
At night, the mountain exploded Jan. 22 with the strongest roar that was heard even in British Honduras, is located at a distance of 650 kilometers. Sea over 240 kilometers of floating masses of pumice-covered, resembling ice floes in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The volcano threw 50 yards to the three species. There were reports of ash fallout on the area from 50 to 150 square kilometers. Killed 800 people. 

Eruption Koseguina in 1835 in the Western Hemisphere is most intense. Gore is part of a belt of active volcanoes that runs along the Pacific coast from Guatemala to the border with Panama. Sometimes it is called "Fire the Pacific belt." Prior to the eruption of 1835 Koseguina was referred to the extinct volcanoes. 

August 26, 1883 Indonesia volcano Krakatoa. 
The eruption of Krakatoa in Indonesia in 1883 led to the loudest roar ever heard in history. The sound was heard at a distance of more than 4,800 km from the volcano.Atmospheric shock waves went around the Earth seven times, and for 5 days were still visible. It was released about 19 km 3 of volcanic ash and other volcanic products, dropped raylnah related to the area over 800 000 km 2. The tsunami height of 20 meters, which arose vsledstvvii eruption led to the death of the neighboring islands of about 36 000 people. 165 villages were destroyed and another 132 Nansen damage. 

7.8 in May 1902 G. St. Vincent. Soufriere Hills volcano. 
Killed 1565 people. 

1902 May 8, O. Martinique. The volcano of Mont Pelee. 
At 7:00. 50 minutes. Mont Pelee volcano burst into pieces - four strong explosions were heard, like cannon shots. They are thrown from the main crater of black cloud, which permeated the flash of lightning. But it was not the most dangerous emissions.That side emissions - those with at that time will be called "peleyskimi" - was sent to the hurricane-speed fire and brimstone on the side of the mountain straight to St-Pierre - one of the main ports of the island of Martinique. 

Super-heated volcanic gas, because of its high density and high speed stlavshiysya above the ground, penetrating into all the cracks. A huge cloud covered the area of total destruction. The second zone of destruction stretches for another 60 km 2. This cloud formed from the superhot steam and gases, billions of heaviness hot ash particles, moving at a velocity sufficient to carry the rock fragments and volcanic emissions, had a temperature of 700-980 ° C and was able to melt the glass. Mont Pelee erupted again - May 20 - almost the same power as 8. 

The volcano of Mont Pelee with pieces apart and destroyed Saint-Pierre, along with its population. Killed 36 thousand people. 17 ships, standing in the harbor at the pier was destroyed. Only one steamer "Maternity" with broken masts, littered with as snow, ash and steaming in many places, barely managed to escape. Of the inhabitants of the city survived only two people - the city jail inmate, who was sitting in an underground solitary confinement and a man who lived on the edge of town. 

Research in the seabed near the island of Martinique has shown that it sank a few hundred meters. 

October 24, 1902 in Guatemala. Volcano Santa Maria. 
With the eruption of volcanic ash and debris layer thickness of 20 cm was covered area of 323.75 sq. miles. The explosion was heard a huge capacity for 800 miles - in Costa Rica, a slope soared upward, carrying with them everything that was on it, then hit the giant boulders down the hill. Formed after the eruption clouds hung week.Before we disperse, they have risen to a height of 20 km. Killed six thousand people. 

August 1903 New Zealand. Waimangu Geyser. 
During the strongest emission from the Waimangu geyser, 4 people died. 

January 30, 1911 Philippines. Taal Volcano. 
During the strongest eruption in the 20th century ta'ala - constantly active volcano in the Philippines - were killed in 1335 and 199 people were injured. Thick layer of mud up to 80 meters, followed by a stream of poisonous volcanic gas, destroyed people's homes and at a distance of 10 kilometers. Gradually, the ash covered the area about 2,000 square kilometers. 

It was a classic example of the eruption, "peleyskogo" type, where the eruption occurs not only from the summit crater, but also of the craters on the slopes of the mountains, often with hurricane force winds. Volcano emits virtually no lava, and masses of white hot ash and superheated steam. 

The volcano is located on the volcanic island in the middle of the lake of the same name. During its long history, he repeatedly had catastrophic eruption, the most destructive of which occurred January 30, 1911 After Taal remained quiet until 1965, when the newly erupted which killed 200 people. Until now, he remains active and dangerous volcano. 

6.8 g.Alyaska June 1912, the United States. Novarupta. 
June 6, 1912 in the Katmai volcanic eruption, which formed as a result of the Valley of ten thousand smokes and a new volcano, named Novarupta. It was one of the three eruptions of the 20th century, which was given power indicator volcano 6 on a scale of volcanic eruptions. Power of the eruption, which lasted about 60 hours, was 17 km ³, of which fell to the ground about 11 km ³ of ash. The column of ash rose 20 km, and the sound was heard over 1200 km in Juneau. Four kilometers from the volcano ash layer reached twenty meters. The last eruption occurred in 1921. 

Initially, the eruption of Mount Katmai was attributed located at 10 km, but later it was found that a new volcano magma pulled out of it through underground fissures, causing the top of Katmai collapsed. Novarupta destroyed the swamps, snowfields and streams, burying them under a thick layer of hot ash 215 meters. 

13-28 December 1931 A. Java, Indonesia, Merapi Volcano. 
One of the most powerful volcanic eruptions in the 20th century. Two weeks - from 13 to 28 December Volcano monster lava flow length of about 7 km, width up to 180 m and a depth of 30 meters the flow of incandescent burned land and destroyed everything in its path of the village. Killed more than 1,300 people. Both slopes of the volcano exploded and spewed volcanic ash fall asleep half of the island. 

Mexico in June 1944. Volcano Parikutin. 
In 1943, many magazines have written about this volcano, as a "volcano born in a cornfield in front of its owner." He really rose to the cornfield. For many years this place was a small hole, 5 February 1943 began a series of ever escalating tremors, resulting in a hole near a crack. 

February 19 residents experienced at least 300 aftershocks. February 20 crack on one side of the hole began to expand. Almost immediately there was a sound like thunder. Nearby trees shook and the earth swelled by about a meter. In some places, the cracks began to rise from the smoke and fine ash-gray dust. February 21 of a growing cone of lava began to flow. By the end of the first week of the cone height was 15 meters by the end of the first year, it rose to 300 m in June 1944 there was a strong eruption. A huge lava flow down to the village Parikutin and a larger village of San Juan de Parangarikutiro. Dense ash is partially asleep, both localities, there were several casualties. 

November 1946 O. Matua, Russia. Sarychev Peak volcano. 
The eruption was so strong that the stone bombs scattered seven kilometers from the crater. Lava flows reached the sea. The glow was visible for 150 miles, and the ashes dropped over 800 miles of the eruption, in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. 

January 21, 1951 New Guinea. Lamington volcano. 
The eruption was exactly the same type as that of Mont Pele - the "New Ardent", sweeping everything in its path while descending the slope of the volcano. A series of terrible explosions ripped top and slopes, emitting large mushroom cloud of ash, which for 2 min. rose to a height of 12 km, and after 20 min. reached an altitude of 15 km. The explosion was so strong that it was heard on the coast of New Britain - for 320 km from Lamington. Breaking out of the mountainside, "the New Ardent" rushed down, sweeping away the forest, so that not even left the stumps. 

The eruption killed 2942 people. Many of them were killed by hurricane winds, filled with steam, hot ash, debris and hot mud. 

March 30, 1956 Kamchatka, Russia. Volcano Bezymianny. 
A strong blast of Bezymianny volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula is largely gone unnoticed, as there were no deaths. However, the intensity of it is in line with the "peleyskimi" eruptions. 

March 30 to 17 hours. 10 minutes. monstrous explosion shattered the top of the snow-covered Nameless One, who had been raised to a height of 3048 m above sea level.In seconds, cut off from the volcano as the 183 m peaks, and from the crater to a height of 30-40 km has risen volcanic dust. 

Volcanologist GO Gorshkov, who was nearby in the village of keys, described the scene: "The cloud swirled heavily and quickly changed its shape ... She seemed very dense and almost tangibly heavy. Together with a cloud appeared and amplified roar of thunder, accompanied by incessant flashes of lightning. About 17 hours. 40 minutes. When the cloud has passed its zenith and began to fall out ashes ... and 18 hours. 20 minutes. it was so dark that it was impossible to consider his own hand, even if you bring it to his face. People returning from work, walked around the village in search of their homes. Thunder rumbled with stunning force, without stopping. The air was filled with electricity, telephones rang spontaneously, burned out the speakers in the radio ... Felt a strong smell of sulfur. " 

The hot layer of ash covered an area of 482 km 2, the snow melted and formed in the valley of dry Hapitsa and valleys, located on the slopes of adjacent volcanoes, sweeping mudslides. These streams are washed away huge, weighing hundreds of tons of boulders and carried them across the valley, sweeping away everything in its path. Trees were uprooted and burned. 3 weeks after the eruption GO Gorshkov has found thousands of streams of fumarolic gases rising from the surface of a 30-meter layer of ash on the area of 47 km 2. 

1975 A. Java, Indonesia. Merapi Volcano. 
When the eruption had destroyed a large village, killing 29 people 

May 18, 1980 State of Washington, USA. Mount St. Helens .. 
A cloud of ash shot up from the cone upright for 10 minutes. rose to a height of 19.2 km. Day turned into night. In the Spokane (Wash.), 400 km from the volcano, the visibility dropped to 3 m in broad daylight, as soon as the cloud reached the city. In Yakima, 145 km from the volcano, the ash layer thickness dropped to 12 cm in a smaller number of ash fell in the state of Idaho, in the central part of Montana and parts of Colorado. A cloud of ash rounded the globe in 11 days. For several weeks now stained ash sunsets, influence on the atmosphere. As in most eruptions, lava dome was formed with a height of 183 m and a diameter of 610 meters from it began to pour out lava. Throughout the 1982 Mount St. Helens erupted again, but with less force. 

The energy liberated when a catastrophic explosion of the volcano, consistent with an energy of 500-type atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima, or 10 million tons of TNT.The area of 600 km2 burnt to the state of the lunar landscape. 

Mount St. Helens fell like a broken tooth. Once upon a balanced and well-built peak disappeared, and instead of 400 m below appeared amphitheater with steep 600-meter high walls, with the barren terrain beneath them. During the eruption killed 57 people. 

March 29, 1982, Mexico. The volcano El Chichon. 
Eruption of El Chichon volcano occurred in two stages: 29 March and 3-4 April 1982 first volcanic ash filled the air to a height of about 30 km. Then what appeared to be in the stratosphere (about 10 Mt), was transferred to the west. Stratospheric clouds, extending horizontally, made several distinct circuits. Observations of the Hawaiian Islands have shown that, due to deflation in December (compared to June), the concentration of ash at an altitude of 20 km has decreased by 6 times. In the temperate latitudes of the volcanic ash appeared in November 1982 Signs of the Arctic stratosphere increase turbidity appeared in March 1983 thus needed about a year, that pollution is uniformly distributed in the stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, it is uniformly ebbed for a year about 3 times. 

12-13 November 1985, Colombia. The volcano Nevado del Ruiz. 
It happened on the largest number of casualties and material damage volcano Nevado del Ruiz. According to official data from the Colombian Government, as a result of the eruption were killed or went missing about 23 thousand people, even 5000 were seriously injured and maimed. Tens of thousands of Colombians lost their homes and property. Mudflow actually wiped out the town Armeria. It was also destroyed several nearby villages. Were damaged pipelines and power lines, destroyed bridges. Due to the discontinuity of telephone lines and erosion of roads link with the affected area has been interrupted. Seriously affected by the eruption of coffee plantations: were destroyed not only the coffee trees, but also has a significant part of the crop. Colombia's economy has suffered significant damage. 

The height of the column of smoke and explosions ejected rock fragments reached 8 feet. Because of the outpouring of lava and hot gas exits the temperature rose, resulting in melted covered the volcano of snow and ice. 

9-15 June 1991 A. Luzon, Philippines. Pinatubo volcano. 
More than 500 people died and 100 thousand were left homeless as a result of many eruptions. Mud flows and water washed away the house. A layer of ash 20 cm thick, turned into mud, destroying the building. 

June 10 eruption of the volcano average force on 12 June the volcano exploded, throwing a mushroom cloud in the sky. The flows of gas, ash and molten rocks poured on the slopes at speeds up to 100 km / h. Ash reached Singapore, which is removed from the volcano of 2.4 thousand km. The volcano continued to erupt on 15 and 16 June. Mud flows and water washed away the house. A layer of ash 20 cm thick, becoming mud in front of destroyed buildings. The slopes of Mount Pinatubo resembled a lunar landscape. In the province of Zambales, the most affected region, it was covered with 90-centimeter layer of ash and volcanic debris. 

The smallest particles ejected ash to form a huge cloud that girdled the globe at the equator. In the central part contained little ozone, and the edges - a lot of sulfur dioxide. When the eruption has been released into the atmosphere for more than 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide. Pinatubo volcanic ash clouds, as the volcano Krakatoa in 1883, has led to a common temperature decrease as ash particles form a screen to retain sunlight. Since satellites were recorded in the presence of an atmosphere of chlorine compounds and other harmful gases in concentrations greater than usual. 

June 30, 1997, Mexico. The volcano Popocatepetl. 
Villages located close to the mountain, were taken almost 40 thousand people. A pillar of flame from the crater reached 18 km in height, the streets of Mexico City, located 60 km from the volcano, the ash was falling. 

March 14, 2000 Kamchatka, Russia. Volcano Bezymianny. 
When the ash eruption dumped a huge force to a height of 5 km above sea level, and clouds of ash plume stretches in a north-westerly direction at least 100 km. Danger to the public awakened volcano is not represented. Kozyrevsk village, situated at the foot of the volcano, nearly all covered with ashes and smell of sulfur. The last time before the eruption of Bezymianny occurred February 24, 1999, when ash emissions reached a height of 8 km. A similar ash falls were recorded at this volcano only in 1956 

14-19 December 2000, Mexico. The volcano Popocatepetl. 
December 14 at the first eruption were evacuated 14 thousand people. The volcano spewed hot rocks and ash to a height of 1 km radius of their fall was about 10 km. Ash from the eruption of the wind blew in a radius of 80 kilometers. On the night of 18 on December 19 was re-eruption of the volcano. Departing from located at an altitude of 5.5 km of the crater rocks, gas and a column of molten lava could be seen from anywhere in Mexico, located 60 km. From the vicinity of the volcano were evacuated immediately 40 thousand people. 

June 12th, 2009 O. Matua, Russia. Sarychev Peak volcano. 
The height of the ash cloud reached 8 km above the crater rim, ash plume extended 200 km to the south-west and 105 kilometers south-east. Because of the powerful volcanoes on the Kuril Islands, a leading Japanese airline JAL has been forced to change the route of almost 20 of its flights to North America and Europe. 

April 14, 2010 in Iceland. Volcano Eyjafjallajökull. 

From the disaster area were evacuated about 800 people. April 15 due to emission of volcanic ash, several countries in northern Europe have been forced to close airports. Was stopped traffic on nearby roads and canceled some flights. Concerns have led to the fact that volcanic lava melt the ice that will cause severe flooding. The volcano is located 200 kilometers east of Reykjavik. The last time it erupted in 1821 and 1823, respectively. Volcanologists suggest that the eruption may last for about a year. 

May 21, 2011 in Iceland. Grimsvotn volcano. 
A pillar of smoke rose to a height of 20 km. Emissions of ash caused a mass cancellation of flights in Iceland, the British Isles (in particular, has been closed air traffic over Scotland), as well as in Germany, Norway to the west and north-west of Denmark. 

June 5, 2011 Chile. Volcano Puyeue. 
Above the volcano rose a huge column of smoke and ash. Volcanic ash cloud is moving toward the wind Argentina. According to the National Service of Geology and Mining of the country, the volcano threw a column of ash up to 10 km. 
On the night of Sunday 5 June, about 3500 people to flee their homes due to the volcanic eruption which began Puyeue. 

June 12, 2011 Eritrea. Volcano Nabro. 
Eruption was preceded by a series of earthquakes with a magnitude of 5.6. The eruption spewed ash to a height of 13.5 km. The eruption killed 7 people, more than 3.5 thousand people were evacuated. 

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Автор: admin от 03.03.2012



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